Saturday, September 17, 2016

Contoh Terbaru Discussion Text.

Setelah membahas tentang apa itu Discussion Text pada posting sebelumnya, maka berikut ini kami berikan beberapa contoh Discussion Text yang terbaru. Selamat membaca dan semoga bermanfaat...


Should tablets replace textbooks in K-12 schools?

Publishing for the K-12 school market is an $8 billion industry, with three companies - McGraw-Hill, Pearson, and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt - capturing about 85% of this market.  Tablets are a $72 billion industry with 42% of US adults owning a tablet.  As tablets have become more prevalent, a new debate has formed over whether K-12 school districts should switch from print textbooks to digital textbooks on tablets and e-readers.

Proponents of tablets say that they are supported by most teachers and students, are much lighter than print textbooks, and improve standardized test scores. They say that tablets can hold hundreds of textbooks, save the environment by lowering the amount of printing, increase student interactivity and creativity, and that digital textbooks are cheaper than print textbooks. 

Opponents of tablets say that they are expensive, too distracting for students, easy to break, and costly/time-consuming to fix. They say that tablets contribute to eyestrain, headaches, and blurred vision, increase the excuses available for students not doing their homework, require costly Wi-Fi networks, and become quickly outdated as new technologies are released.

Tablets and textbooks have their own advantages and disadvantages. Whether you choose tablet or textbooks, it is totally your call. Choose the one that best suits you as a student.



The Pros and Cons of Using Vaccines

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends getting 28 doses of 10 vaccines for kids aged 0 to six. No US federal laws mandate vaccination, but all 50 states require certain vaccinations for children entering public schools. Most states offer medical and religious exemptions; and some states allow philosophical exemptions.  

Proponents say that vaccination is safe and one of the greatest health developments of the 20th century. They point out that illnesses, including rubella, diphtheria, smallpox, polio, and whooping cough, are now prevented by vaccination and millions of children’s lives are saved. They contend adverse reactions to vaccines are extremely rare.

Opponents say that children’s immune systems can deal with most infections naturally, and that injecting questionable vaccine ingredients into a child may cause side effects, including seizures, paralysis, and death. They contend that numerous studies prove that vaccines may trigger problems like autism, ADHD, and diabetes.

Choosing to have vaccination or not for children are still debatable, and the decission to use or not to use is yours.




The advantages and Disadvantages of Building Skateboard Park

There are two sides to every issue.  Whether to build a skateboard park in the community is an issue that definitely has two sides.  There are many people who believe the city should build a skateboard park to accommodate the number of skateboarders in the community.

This group feels that skateboarding is a new and upcoming sport and that city officials should allow skateboarders to enjoy it.  The city already provides basketball courts, tennis courts, racquetball courts, and more.  Among the many benefits of a skateboard park is that it would keep skateboarders off the cement driveways of banks and other public buildings.  The only reason skateboarders skate there is that they have nowhere else to go.

Those with an opposing point of view feel that there should not be a public skateboard park built. The main reasons for the disapproval have to do with safety and security.  A skateboard park has a reputation that comes with it.  Many kids that skateboard tend to be rowdy kids who don’t behave
appropriately.  Building a skateboard park attracts these kids, and it brings down the surrounding neighborhoods in the area.

Choosing to build a skateboard park or not is still debatable in our community. But, it depends on the government’s policies. The good and bad effects must always be considered by them.

What Is Discussion Text?

Image result for discussion



Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will  be  discussed  from different  viewpoints;  the  for  and  against,  the positive and negative, or the good and bad points.
Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text. It can be in oral or written form.

Generic Structure of Discussion 
1. Issue:  - statement
                - preview
2. Arguments for (supporting points) and against statement (contrasting points)of differing points of       view:
    - point or main idea
    -  ellaboration
3. Conclusion or Recommendation:  stating the writer' s recommendation of the discourse

Language Features of Discussion 

  •  Focus on generic participant 
  • Use of material processes (has produced, have developed, to feed) 
  • Use of relational process (is, could have, cause, are) 
  • Use of mental process (feel,hope, believe, etc) 
  • Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc 
  • Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc 
  • Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc 
  • Use of comparative: contrastive and consequential conjunctions 
  • Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns (abstraction)

Examples of discussion texts include: 

  • talkback radio 
  • debates 
  • current affairs interviews  
  • letters to the editor 
  • essays 
  • newspaper articles



Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Bank Soal Reading Procedure Text


Hi guys, setelah sebelumnya kami berbagi tentang bank soal Descriptive Text, maka kali ini kami juga akan berbagi dengan anda Bank Soal Procedure Text yang bisa anda gunakan sebagai bahan belajar maupun mengajar untuk mengasah kemampuan siswa anda memahami text bahasa Inggris dalam bentuk Teks Procedure.

Semoga bermanfaat, kami tunggu feedback dari anda selalu..


How to make a French toast

Recipe for French Toast

You are going to need:

4 pieces of bread
1 spoon of sugar
2 eggs
A quarter of a cup of milk
Butter
Pan
Fork
Bowl

Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.
Now you can get ready. After you read the recipe, put everything on the counter.
When everything is ready, break the eggs, pour a quarter of the milk in the bowl, then add a small spoon of sugar. Mix the eggs, milk and sugar.

Next, put a piece of bread in the bowl with the eggs, milk and sugar. Turn over the bread.

Now, put some butter in the pan. Turn on the stove. When the pan is hot, take the bread out of the bowl and put it into the pan. After you cook one side of the bread, cook the other side. After you finish the first place of the bread, cook the other pieces. Now you have French toast!

Choose the best answer.
1.      The type of the text above is called …..
A.   Recount
B.   Narrative
C.   Description
D.   Procedure
E.   Report

2.      The purpose of the text is ……..
A.   to describe French toast
B.   to explain about French toast
C.   to tell the reader how to make French toast
D.   to entertain the reader with French toast
E.   to persuade the reader to make French toast

3.      Who is the text better addressed to?
A.   An expert chef
B.   A student learning at home
C.   A husband left by his wife
D.   A mother at home
E.   A boy/girl left by his /her mother

4.      “Before you start to cook, you have to read the recipe.” The underlined word means …….
A.   a set of learning instruction
B.   a written statement that one has received money
C.   a written statement that one has received something
D.   a doctor’s written order for a particular medicine
E.   a set of cooking instruction

5.      “You are going to need.” The expression and what it follows belong to …..
A.   event
B.   steps
C.   materials
D.   purpose
E.   orientation


Making an Omelette

This is the way an omelette should be made. It is important that the frying-pan should be proportionate to the number of eggs; in other word, to the size of the omelette. The frying-pan must be made of iron not of aluminum, tin or enamel. And  here I fell I must stress a point, essential to what might be called the background of omelette-making, namely that the frying-pan must never be washed with water but rubbed, when hot, with salt and tissue paper, as this is the only way to prevent sticking.
For three paper, we take six eggs, break them into a bowl, season them with salt and freshly ground pepper, and add a good teaspoonful of water. We beat this lightly with a fork or the wire-broom, not the whisk, until large bubbles from on the top. This takes half a minute; it is fatal to beat too long. Meanwhile, our frying-pan is getting hit, not too hot, and we drop in an ounce and a half of butter and best lard, over quick flame for a minute or two, until it gives no more froth and has turned light golden. We give our egg-mixture another stir and pour it into the fat, letting it spread evenly over the frying-pan.
All this is a swift business, and we may well feel a few extra hearts-beats and a little breathlessness at that moment. the flame is now turned down a little. With a fork or palette-knife (a fork seems to work particularly well) we loosen the edges of the omeletee all round and, once or twice, in the middle, letting the liquid flow into the empty spaces, taking care always to move towards the middle.
This takes about two minutes. Then, keeping as calm as we possibly can, we fold it. This is easiest if we fold over and pin down with two or three fork-pricks about an inch and-a-half of the omelette along one side. Then it is quite easy to roll it into shape. Our omelette should be golden brown outside, and wet inside : because, as is the classical french term. It is then slid on to a hot plate and its surface made shiny with a little butter. This last touch makes all the difference.
1.       What is important about the frying-pan?
a.       It should be the same size as the eggs.
b.       It should never be a small one.
c.        It should never be too small to hold the eggs.
d.       It should never be a very flat one.
e.        It should be a big one.
2.       Which of the following frying-pans is among those mentioned by the writer?
a.       One made of aluminum.
b.       One made of aluminum and enamel.
c.        One made of iron.
d.       One made of gold.
e.        One made of paper.
3.       What is the only way to prevent sticking?
a.       Rubbing with hot salt and tissue-paper.
b.       Rubbing with hot water.
c.        Rubbing with salt and paper.
d.       Washing with salt and paper.
e.        Washing with water.
4.       When the writer uses the word baveuse, she means ______.
a.       the states of an omelette
b.       an omelette made in ancient Rome
c.        the size of an omelette
d.       the shape of an omelette
e.        an omelette made in France
5.       Where the empty spaces we let the liquid flow into?
a.       all round the edged of the omelette
b.       at some edges of the omelette
c.        in and round the pan
d.       in the omelette
e.        around the pan


6.       What makes all the difference to the omelette?
a.       making a plate shiny with a little butter
b.       putting something on it
c.        touching the omelette
d.       sliding the omelette on to a plate
e.        putting the omelette on butter



APPLE MUFFINS

Ingredients:
·         1 cup whole meal self-raising flour
·         ½ cup brown sugar
·         ½ cup oat bran
·         ½ teaspoon cinnamon
·         ¼ cup almond flakes
·         2 large green apples
·         1 egg
·         2/3 cup milk
·         60 g butter, melted

1         Turn oven to 220oC (425oF).
2         Grease 12 muffin pans.
3         Sift flour into a bowl. Add sugar, oat bran, cinnamon and almonds.
4         Peel and grate the apples.
5         Put them into the bowl.
6         Mix egg, milk and melted butter in a jug.
7         Add to bowl all at once.
8         Stir with a fork
9         Stir until just mixed.
10     Almost fill the muffin pans with the batter.
11     Bake in oven for 15 to 20 minutes until golden.
12     Serve the muffins warm with butter and jam.

7.       When do you consider that the muffins should be served?
a.       when they are still warm
b.       when they are still cold
c.        when they are in the oven
d.       when they are in the bowl
e.        when they are ripe
8.       Why do people use self-raising flour? Because …..
a.       you don’t have to use fork
b.       you don’t have to use butter
c.        you don’t have to use cinnamon
d.       you don’t have to use baking powder
e.        you don’t have to use oven
9.       How many muffins will you get out of the recipe?
a.       fifteen muffins
b.       fifty muffins
c.        twenty muffins
d.       two muffins
e.        twelve muffins
10.    What do you think ‘almost fill the muffin pans’ means? It means …..
a.       we don’t fill the pans with the muffin
b.       we don’t fill the pans to the brim
c.        we don’t fill the pans with the apple
d.       we don’t fill the pans to the bowl
e.        we don’t fill the pans to the oven
11.    How long do you bake the muffin?
a.       fifteen to twelve minutes
b.       fifty to twenty minutes
c.        fifty to twelve minutes
d.       fifteen to twenty minutes
e.        twelve to fifty minutes
12.    Where do you cook the muffins?
a.       in a bowl
b.       in a teaspoon
c.        in an oven
d.       in a jug
e.        in a fork


Friday, June 10, 2016

Bank Soal Descriptive Text Untuk SMA/ SMK


Hai guys, salam sukses selalu ya.. Pada posting kali ini kami memberikan bank soal Reading Bahasa Inggris yang bisa anda gunakan untuk belajar ataupun membuat soal bagi siswa-siswa anda. Jenis teks yang kami sajikan kali ini berbentuk Descriptive Text. Semoga bermanfaat dan sampai jumpa di posting-posting berikutnya.

Hasil gambar untuk orchard road

Orchard Road
Orchard Road is a Boulevard which becomes business and entertainment center in Singapore. Orchard Road is surrounded by a lush tropical and flower gardens which are beautiful. At first, Orchard Road is just a suburban street lined with orchards, plantations nutmeg, and pepper farming. However, in the 1970s, it turned into a shopping center in Singapore. In 1960 and 1970 entertainment industries began to enter this road. Shopping centers such as mall and Plaza was built in 1974.
Orchard Road runs along about 2.2 km. This road is one-way street flanked by a variety of shopping malls, hotels and restaurants. The shopping area which is nearly 800,000 square meters provides a wide range of Things, food, and entertainment. In this area there are many options that can satisfy visitors from all walks of life starting from the luxury branded things to the Popular branded, from exclusive restaurants to fast food.
There are so many ways that can be accessed to get to Orchard road such as: by taxi, bus or drive your own car. For those who are driving to Orchard Road can be entered from the west through the Napier Road. Vehicles from Dunearn Road can turn to left at the intersection of the Marriott Hotel junction. Vehicles that come from Paterson can turn right onto Orchard Road. Orchard is always crowded so you have to be careful in order not to get lost.
1.      The text mainly focuses on
a. Singapore
b. Orchard Plantation
c. Plaza and Mall
d. Orchard road as business and entertainment center
e. Shopping Center
2.      Which statement is TRUE?
a. At first Orchard Road is a crowded settlement
b. Orchard road became business and entertainment center since 1974
c. Vehicles from Dunrean road turn to the left at intersection of the Marriott Hotel junction
d. Orchard road is infamous place at Singapore
e. Orchard road is not surrounded by flower garden
3.      In the third paragraph the writer describes about?
a. The location of Orchard Road
b. The things that we can see at orchard road
c. The direction to get to Orchard Road
d. The history of Orchard Road
e. The distance of Orchard Road
4.      Words “it” in line 4 refers to?
a. The plantation
b. Luxury branded things
c. The plaza
d. Singapore
e. Suburban street
5.      The word “satisfy” in line eighth has the closet meaning with?
a. Pleased
b. Free
c. Frighten
d. Threat

e. Loved


Natural Bridge National Park
Natural Bridge National Park is luscious tropical rainforest.
It is located 110 kilometers from south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of Lamington National Park.
The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural ‘arch’ and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short one-kilometer walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms. Picnic areas offers toilets, barbeque, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted.
1.      What is the function of paragraph 1?
a. as an identification
b. as an orientation
c. as a thesis
d. as a classification
e. as an abstract
2.      The text above is in form of………….
a. hortatory exposition
b. narrative
c. description
d. report
e. explanation
3.      What is the communicative purpose of the text?
a. to present two points of views about natural bridge national park
b. to explain the bridge national park
c. to describe the bridge national park
d. to retell the bridge national park
e. to persuade readers to treat preserve the bridge nationl park
4.      Where is the natural bridge national park located?
a. 110 kilometers from South of Brisbane
b. 110 kilometers from Pacific Highway
c. 110 kilometers from Numinbah Valley
d. 110 kilometers from Lamington National Park
e. 110 kilometers from Nerang
5.      What the visitors will see in the night?
a. a common glow worm
b. the unique feature of the glow worms
c. a great dark cave
d. the unique rocks
e. the fantastic bridge
6.      The word ‘luscious’ in the text means………..
a. succulent
b. dense
c. dull
d. dry
e. arid


On the banks of the Chao Phraya, Bangkok’s “River of Kings”, lies a hotel that has already set new standards of hospitality for this celebrated city.
Set in magnificently lanscaped tropical gardens, the Shangri-La Bangkok provides guests with all the charm and warmth of the orient and, at the same time, unsurpassed range of facilities and leisure activities.
There is a choice of 12 superb settings in which to wine and dine, a large free-form swimming pool that overlooks the river, conventoin and meeting facilities for up to 2000 people, and a 24-hour business centre.
And, from every single guest room and suite, there is a breathtaking view of all the exotic hustle and bustle of the fabled “River of Kings”.
One might expect such a well-equipped and positioned hotel to be miles away from the city center but, at Shangri-La Bangkok the busness district and main shopping areas are mere minutes away.
From more than 200 years, Bangkok’s granduer has been reflected in the waters of the Chao Phraya. Today, the Shangri-La Bangkok towers beside this majestic river, offers its guests the golden promise of the East.
1.      The text mainly focuses on…………..
a. Bangkok’s granduer
b. Shangri-La Bangkok
c. Bangkok’s ”River Kings”
d. the water of the Chao Praya
e. the majestic river in Bangkok
2.      The type of text above is a/an……………
a. report
b. recount
c. anecdote
d. narrative
e. descriptive
3.      For how many people the meeting facilities are up to?
a. 6000 people
b. 4000 people
c. 2000 people
d. 5000 people
e. 1000 people
4.      The communicative purpose of this text is………………
a. to describe Chao Praya
b. to retell events for entertainment
c. to present at least two points of view about an issue
d. to tell the luxury of Shangri-La Bangkok
e. to inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day

Venice is a city in northern Italy. It has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy.
  Venice is world famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old centre, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot.
  You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorised waterbuses which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the Traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.

Adapted from: http://www.wikipedia.com

What does the text tell you about?
A.  Gondola.
B.  Traghetti. 
C.  Venice.
D.  Italy.

What transport crosses the Grand Canal for foot passengers at certain points without bridges?
A.  Gondolas.
B.  Traghetti. 
C.  Waterbuses.
D.  Lagoon.

From the text we can say that Venice belongs to a city of ….
A.  water
B.  ceremonies
C.  buses
D.  funerals

What does the second paragraph of the text tell us about?
A.  The forms of transport in the world. 
B.  The canals and roads that people like to use.
C.  The archipelago that has a lot of islands.
D.  Venice as the world famous for its canals. 

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

12 Keys To Get High Score In TOEFL Test



There are two types of knowledge that will lead to high TOEFL  scores:
•  A knowledge of the tactics used by good test takers and of the "tricks" of the test (which you will learn by using this  Guide)
•  A general command of English (which must be built up over a  long period)

1: Increase your general knowledge of English.

The best way to increase your general knowledge of English is simply to use English as  much as possible.  Classes in English will be useful, and so will opportunities to speak, read, write,  or listen to English.

Some people who are preparing for TOEFL think that conversation classes and practice are a waste of time because speaking skills are not tested on the exam.  In fact,  one of the best ways to get ready for the exam is  to converse in English whenever you can.  Not only will you improve your ability to listen to everyday English, but you'll also learn to think in English. If you are living in an English-speaking country, don't spend all  your time with people from your own country. If you  are living in your home country, try to arrange  opportunities for conversations in English.

You  can improve your listening comprehension skills by going to English-language  lectures and movies.  Listening to news and informational broadcasts on the radio is  especially useful.  Reading books, magazines, and newspapers in English can help you prepare for the Reading Comprehension part of the test.

One of your most important jobs is  to systematically improve your vocabulary. Vocabulary build-ing will  help you, not just in the Reading test, but throughout the exam. You  may want to keep a personal vocabulary list. When you come across  an unfamiliar word, look it up in a  dictionary and
write the word and its  definition in your personal vocabulary list.  Keep this list with you and study it when riding buses, eating lunch, taking coffee breaks, or whenever else you  have a  free  moment.

2: Make the most of your preparation time.

You  need to train for TOEFL  just as you would train for any important competitive event.  Obviously, the sooner you can start training, the better, but no matter when you begin, you need to get the most out of your preparation time. Make a  time-management chart. Draw up an hour-by-hour schedule of your week's activities.

Block out those hours when you are busy with classes, work, social activities,  and other responsibili-ties. Then pencil in times for TOEFL  preparation. You  will remember more of what you study if you schedule a  few hours every day or several times weekly instead of scheduling all your study time in
large blocks on weekends. After following  this schedule for  a  week,  make whatever adjustments are necessary. After that,  try to keep to this schedule until the week before the testing date.  During that last week, reduce your study time  and begin to relax. If possible, reserve a  special place where you do nothing but work on TOEFL  preparation, sepa-rate from where you  do your regular homework or other work. This place should be as free  of dis-tractions  as  possible.

A good method of studying for TOEFL  is  the "30-5-5"  method:
•  Study for thirty minutes.
•  Take a  five-minute break-leave your desk and do something completely different.
•  When you return, take five  minutes to review what you  studied before the break and preview what you are going to study next.

Incidentally, it's an excellent idea to meet regularly with a  small group of people who are also
preparing for TOEFL.  Research has shown that this study-group  approach to test  preparation is  very
effective.



3: Be in good physical condition when you take the exam.

When you make out your time-management schedule, don't forget to leave time for physical activities-sports, aerobics, jogging, bicycling, or whatever else you prefer. The most important physical concern is that you not become exhausted during your preparation time.  If you  aren't getting enough sleep, you'll need to reduce your study time or another activity. This is  especially important in the last few days before the exam.

4: Choose your test date carefully.

If you require  PBT scores for  admission to a  university, you need to  plan ahead. Most students at North American universities  enter their programs in the fall  term, with late classes beginning in August or September. The deadline for  applying for the fall  term  is  usually December of the previous year or January of that year. Therefore, you  should take the test sometime  in  the  spring or summer of the previous year.  If your score on the test is  not satisfactory, you will then  have  time to take the test again.

Of course, if you are taking a  TOEFL preparation program, you should wait until you  have completed  or almost completed that course before you take the test so that the tactics and skills you have learned will be fresh in your mind.

5: Be familiar with the format and directions.

You  should have a  clear map of the TOEFL  test in your mind. Then, as  you're taking the exam, you'll know exactly where you are and what's  coming next. The directions for each part of the TOEFL  test are always the same;  even the  same examples are used. If you are familiar with the directions, you won't have to waste time  reading them during the test.

6: Organize your pre-exam time.

You  shouldn't try to "cram" (study intensively) during the last few days before the exam.  Last-minute studying can leave you exhausted, and you need to be alert for the test. The night before the exam, don't study at all.  Gtt together the materials you'll need in the morning, then go to a  movie, take a long walk, or do something else to take your mind off the test.  Go to bed when you usually do.

If the exam is  in the morning, have breakfast before you leave. Wear comfortable clothes because you'll be sitting in the  same position for  a  long time.  Give  yourself plenty of time to get to the test site, keeping in mind traffic,  weather, and parking problems. If you have to rush,  that will  only add
to your stress.

7: Use time wisely during the test. 

TOEFL  would be a  far easier test if you could spend an unlimited amount of time working on it. However, there  are strict time limits.  Doing well on TOEFL  means that you must find a  balance between speed and accuracy. You  don't want to rush through any section, but you do want to finish
each section before time is  called. The ideal is  to finish  Sections 2  and 3  with a  few  minutes remain-ing so that you can go back to questions that you found difficult.  (The timing on Section  1  is  con-trolled by the audio and you can't go back and check your answers after completing this section.)
The questions  on TOEFL  are not equally difficult.  Items can be classified as  easy,  medium, and difficult. The approximate distribution of items on a  typical TOEFL  are as  follows:  easy-30%; medium-40%;  difficult-30%.

Easy items are usually found at the beginning of each part of the test, medium items are  usually found in the middle of each part, and difficult items are usually found at the end of each part. You may be tempted to rush through the  easy items to save time for the difficult ones at the end of each
part. This  is  not a  good strategy. Your goal is  to get as many right answers as  possible. Therefore, you want to concentrate on the items that give you the best chance of a  correct answer-in other words, the easiest ones.

Hint:  Remember, you don't get any extra points for answering difficult questions.

Work steadily.  Never spend too much time on anyone problem. If you  are unable to decide on an answer, guess and go on. Answer each question as you come to it,  even if you are not sure of the answer. You  can mark difficult items on your answer sheet with check marks Then, if you have time at the end of the section, you can return to these problems. Sometimes when you  come back to an item, you will find it easier. (Be sure to erase all  of these  check marks before you hand in your answer sheet.) The most important tool for timing yourself is  a  watch, preferably one with a  "count down" fea-ture that you can set at the beginning of Sections 2  and 3.  (Watches with alarms are  not permitted.)

8: Know how to mark your answer sheet.



One of the worst surprises you can have  during a  test is  to suddenly discover that the number of the item that you are working on doesn't correspond to the number of the answer you are marking for that item. You  have to go back to find where you first  got off track, then change all  the answers
after that number. You  can avoid this  problem by using the test book itself as a  marker. Cover all the unanswered items in each column on your answer sheet. Then uncover one item at a  time as you advance.  Every five  items  or so,  quickly glance at the number of the question that you are working on and the number of the answer to make sure they are the same.

Always be sure you have filled in  a  circle completely and have filled  in only one answer per item. If you  have to erase an answer,  erase  it completely.
Notice  the check  marks by numbers 4  and 6. The test taker found these  items  difficult.  He or she guessed at the  answers, and then used the marks as  a  reminder to come back to these items if the time  allowed.  These marks  should be erased before the  end of the test. Incidentally,  if you  mark the same answer four times  in a  row,  you'll  know one of those four answers is  wrong. The  same correct answer will  occur at most three times  in a  row on TOEFL.

Hint:  Don't sharpen your pencils too much before the exam. You  can fill  in circles more

9: Improve your concentration. 

The ability to focus  your attention on each item is  an important factor  in scoring high. Two and a half hours  or more after all  is  a  long time to spend in deep concentration.  However, if your concentration is  broken,  it  could cost you points. When  an outside concern comes into your mind, just say to yourself, "I'll  think  about this  after the test." Like  any skill,  the  ability to concentrate can  be improved with  practice.quickly if your pencil is  not too sharp.

10: Use the process of elimination to make the best guess.

Unlike some standardized exams, TOEFL  has no penalty for guessing. In other words, incorrect answers aren't subtracted from your total score. Even if you are not sure which answer is  correct, you should always,  always, always guess. But you want to make an educated guess, not a  blind guess. To do so, use the process of elimination,

To understand the process of elimination, it  may be helpful to look at the basic structure of a multiple-choice item. On TOEFL,  multiple choice items consist of a  stem and four answer choices, (The  stem in the  Listening section is  spoken;  in the other two sections, it  is  written.) One answer choice, called the key, is  correct. The three incorrect choices are called distractors because their function is  to distract (take away) your attention from the right answer.

STEM  .............. .
(A)  distractor
(B)  distractor
(C)  key
(D) distractor
The three  distractors,  however, are usually not equally attractive.  One is  usually "almost correct." This choice is  called the main distractor. Most people who answer an item incorrectly will chose this answer.

STEM  ......... .
(A)  distractor
(B)  key
(C)  distractor
(D) main distractor

To see how this works in practice, look at this simple Structure item:

Winter wheat ____ planted in the fall.
(A)  because
(B) is
(C)  which
(D)  has

If you  are sure of the answer, you should mark your choice immediately and go on.  If not, you should use the process of elimination. In this  item,  choices (A)  and (C)  are fairly easy to eliminate. Because this sentence consists of a  single clause, connecting words such as  because and which are not needed. It may be a  little  more difficult to choose between choices  (B)  and (D) because both form correct verb phrases. Even if you are unable to decide between these two choices, you have a  50%  chance of guessing correctly. That's twice as  good as the 25%  chance you would have if you had guessed blindly.  (Choice (B)  is  the key,  of course;  a  passive verb,  not a  present perfect verb, is required to complete the  sentence correctly.) Choice (D)  is  the  main  distractor.

What if you eliminate one or two answers but can't decide which of the remaining choices is  cor-rect?  If you have a  "hunch" (an intuitive feeling)  that one choice is  better that the others, choose it.  If not,  just pick any remaining answer and go on. If you have no idea which of the four answers is  correct, it's  better to use  a  standard "guess letter," such as (C),  than to guess at random. You  should NEVER  leave any items unanswered. Even if you don't have time to read an item, you have a  25%  chance of guessing the key.  If you are  unable to finish  a  section, fill  in all the unanswered
ovals on your answer sheet with your guess letter in the last few seconds before time is  called. Remember:  Use the same guess letter all  the time  so that you can fill  in the ovals quickly.

11: Learn to control test anxiety. 

A little  nervousness before an  important test is  normal. After all,  these tests  can have an important effect on your plans for  your education and career. If you were going to  participate in a  big athletic contest or give  an  important business presentation, you would feel  the  same way. There is  an expression in English that describes this feeling  quite  well: "butterflies in the stomach." These "butterflies" will  mostly disappear once the test starts. And a  little nervousness can  actually help by making you more  alert and focused.  However, too much nervousness can slow you  down and cause you to make mistakes.

You  may become anxious during the test because it  seems very hard and it seems that you are making many mistakes. Try not to panic. The test seems hard because it is hard. You  can miss  quite a few  items and still  get a  high score. One way to avoid stress on the  day of the test is  to give  yourself plenty to time to get to  the test center. If you have to rush,  you'll  be even more nervous  during the exam. If you begin to feel extremely anxious during the test, try taking a  short break-a "ten-second vacation." Close your eyes and put down your pencil. Take  a  few  deep breaths, shake out your hands, roll  your head on your neck, relax-then go back to work.

Of course, you can't take a  break during the Listening Comprehension section when the items are being read.  However,  if you're familiar with the directions, you can relax during the times when directions are being read. A positive,  confident attitude toward the exam can help you overcome  anxiety. Think of TOEFL not as  a  test of your knowledge or of you as a  person but as an intellectual  challenge, a  series of puzzles to be solved.

12: Learn from taking practice test and official TOEFL exams. 

One of the most important steps in preparing for TOEFL  is  taking realistic,  complete  practice tests. In addition, you may take the official TOEFL  test several times.  Each time you take a  test, either a  practice test or a  real  one, you should learn from  it.  Immediately after the exam, write down your reactions: Which section  seemed difficult?  Did you have  problems finishing  any sections? When you look at your results,  is  the  score for one section Significantly lower of higher than the scores for the other two sections? You  can use this information to focus  your studies  for  the next time you take the test.

Hint:
Whenever you take a  practice test,  pretend that you  are taking an actual TOEFL  exam. Whenever you take an actual exam, pretend you are taking a  practice test.

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